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This is illustrated in the program. Then calculate the number of days that separate these two dates. Write a gosub that strips multiple blanks from a string, reducing them to single blanks.

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What you will get is a program that's harder to work on. One of the goals of structured programming is to make programs that are easy to modify and maintain in the future.

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First, a slight digression. Another advantage, is that, with proper naming conventions your mainline code will be self-documenting. This makes it difficult for anyone else to read or understand your code.

Thus we'll allow either when we check. This allows reverse video effects. Remember, though, that indenting is solely for the human reader's benefit. If you use this method, you'll need to have a separate print statement to shift to the next line.

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What if you write past the end? Clear each line before prompting for new data. We can point directly to the start of the record and read it. Pages using deprecated image syntax All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from June Webarchive template wayback links.

The important thing is to be consistent. For circles or boxes, the center works well, but it's not required. Put a space before and after the name.

This allows us to set the value of variables. This is much friendlier since the user only needs to press one key each time. It turns out that we can use that extra memory to display multiple screens at once. Both modes have their applications.

Only positive numbers are valid for input. In several of my published games I've wrestled with these very problems.

We've covered a large number of topics, and if you've done some of the exercises, projects and played with the example programs, you should have a solid grasp of the elements of Basic at this point. All that happens is that display is limited to the left hand side of the screen.

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Can you think of methods by which you could get around these exercises? These are system functions since they come as part of the language. Think of them as a cassette tapes.

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There's no need to look at the intervening information. Remember to change back to the original setting after each special color. Later we'll see ways of using this numeric feature in sorting and alphabetizing.

One use you can make of this feature is as a calculator. Sequential and random files handle records and fields quite differently. There are several ways we can change these defaults. Note that we've changed the structure of our program so that the user can enter deposits and checks in any order. You won't have to worry what conditions are where the gosub is called.

We'll look at some ways that extra memory can be used. Compilers can use them or not, as you like. In the next few installments we'll add loops, color, sound and arrays. To run the program you have two choices.

Our first program lacks elegance, and accomplishes nothing of much use, but it gives us something to build on. This is an archaic leftover from early video monitors. Modern practise is to avoid them whenever possible, but I'll include them occasionally for backwards compatibility. The user indicates what type of transaction comes next.

Since we don't care whether the user enters an upper or lower case letter, we shouldn't penalize them. It's pretty difficult to find a solution that's both practical and fast. Rewrite the program to draw the first line, then drop down the right hand side, come back along the bottom right to left, then draw up to the original corner. The first characters are rigidly defined.

Function writing is some of the most fun in Basic. You can write structured programs in Basic just as you can write spaghetti code in Pascal or unmaintainable trash in C. My approach is to write short Basic programs first, examining the difficulties in detail. For the following, camera360 application write down what you think will happen before trying it with the programs.